This module describes the evolution in approaches to ICDPs over time. Some of the major problems identified in ICDP evaluations are discussed within two broad categories: (a) design and conceptual issues and (b) implementation issues. Global experiences in the implementation of several ICDPs have generated lessons and determinants of success for ICDPs, which will continue to represent predominant strategies for site-based conservation. The synthesis reviews some emerging perspectives on approaches to help ICDPs make a sustained contribution to biodiversity conservation and ends with a brief discussion on the continuing debate on the relationship between economic development and biodiversity conservation. The future of ICDPs involves improving their effectiveness by consciously applying lessons learned and simultaneously developing additional tools to help achieve biodiversity conservation.